Programming Language Fundamentals that all Developers Must Understand

Earlier, there was a time when only selected people were part of IT jobs. They possessed solid coding skills. However, today times have changed, and every job aspirant regardless of their background wishes to be an IT professional. Thanks to programming language practice enables them to perform such tasks.

Popular programming languages such as Go, JavaScript, Python, Java, C#, and C++ currently dominate the software development market.

Throughout their careers in software development, programmers often learn a variety of programming languages. However, they need to clear basic concepts to become a master.

Here, we will share the basic programming language concepts that every professional developer must be aware about.

programming language fundamentals

Top Fundamentals of Programming Language:

Basic Syntax:

Syntax is present in every programming language and it’s important to learn them.

They refer to the set of rules for defining the structure of language. Without syntax, it is not possible to read and understand the programming language.

Let us declare a variable name greet and assign the value “Greeting of the day” to it.

#include <iostream>
Using namespace std;
int main (){
//your code goes here
String greet;
Greet= “Greeting of the day” 
Count << greet; 
Return 0; 

Variable Declaration:

Variables are the basic programming language concept. They store data values and memory locations for the data type. They are declared using the declaration.

In general, variable names are alphanumeric that contain numbers – 0 to 9 and alphabets – a to z. Special characters like a dollar sign and underscore are also part of these variables.

For instance:

The best example of a variable is the dialogue box pop on the homepage of the website. Here, a programmer could name this variable “visitorName.” When the user types the name and submits it, the information will be stored in the “visitorName” variable.

Data Types and Structure:

Data types are the classification of data. Some of the common data types are as follows:

  • Boolean (true or false)
  • String
  • Characters (including numbers or single alphabets)
  • Arrays (data collection)

A data structure is a data values collection. It also includes the operations applied to the data. These are crucial in computer programming for managing and storing the data.

Common types of data structures are as follows:

  • Heaps
  • Trees
  • Stacks
  • Linked Lists
  • Arrays
  • Queues
  • Graphs
  • Tables
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Sequential control flow is the basic control flow. Here the computer decides to justify the statement as true or false.


Selection (Conditionals):

Selection flow control is the basic premise where the computer decides the taking of action. This action is the testing of the condition as true or false

conditional statement - Programming language fundamentals

Iteration (Loops):

A loop is defined as a programming structure that enables the repeating execution of a particular statement or the block of code. This is done until a specified condition is no longer true. Loops are the powerful concept of programming languages.

iteration flow - programming language fundamentals

Functional programming:

Functions take the input and return an output. Pure functions will give the same set of inputs. Functional programming is a method of developing software with pure functions. It will also eliminate the side effects or data mutation occurrence. Any software developer should be aware of this programming language concept.

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Object Oriented Programming:

OOP is an object oriented programming language including methods and objects. There are four principles of OOP:

  • Abstraction
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation

IDEs and Coding Environment:

IDE stands for the Integrated Development Environment which are the apps programmers use to organize text groups. It hikes the programmer’s productivity and adds features like debugging, code compilation and syntax. Some of the common IDEs examples are as follows:

  • IntelliJ IDEA
  • NetBeans
  • Eclipse
  • Visual Studio Code


Any programming language has its fundamental concepts. A software developer should be aware of these principles. If you are planning to make a career in programming or a professional programmer then you should clear these concepts. Moreover, if you hire professional developer then also you ensure about these concepts.